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X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) is a technique that is widely used in identification and characterization of crystalline materials. Crystalline material, due to the long-range order of the atoms or molecules in their structure, will generate unique diffraction patterns when irradiated with X-ray.  Such pattern can be used for identifying the material/phases, or providing various information about the crystalline structure, defects, or purity of the material.  
 
Examples of XRD application include identification of minerals (such as crystalline silica) or metals, and determining the concentrations of various crystalline components/phases through calibration or pattern fitting approaches.  

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